Professional Manuscript Editing–How It Works

For your book to succeed in the marketplace, it needs to meet or exceed publication standards. So it pays to engage the help of the best editor you can find—a trained and seasoned professional, who can correctly identify and help you repair all flaws that may hide in your manuscript. Here are basic facts about the professional manuscript-editing services I offer.

Publishing House Background

I served as editor in chief of a publishing house (a small university press) training and supervising copy editors (junior editors) and proofreaders. Being a full-scale, developmental editor, I thoroughly examine every manuscript that clients send me. You may ask for only correction of grammar and punctuation, but if your book has deeper issues, I will detect them, point out what they are, and recommend a more thorough edit. When your book is finished, there’ll be no passed-over errors or weak spots coming back to embarrass you later, or ruining your reputation just going out of the gate.

Personalized Service

Every book I accept, I handle personally. I don’t outsource work to other editors. You may request a manuscript  critique or developmental edit, an evaluation, a copy edit, or ongoing author coaching. For a detailed explanation of the differences between these services, please see the bottom of this page.


Togenres-FINAL do my best work, it’s important that I like and believe in your manuscript. So I only accept books I’d honestly like to read. I avoid two genres: horror and erotica. I consider books in all other genres, both fiction and nonfiction. (If you are writing a memoir, see this informative article.)

Genres I frequently edit include:

Fiction: thriller, mystery, sci-fi, young adult, children’s, women’s, historical fiction, literary fiction, and Christian
personal development, psychology, how-to, memoir, philosophy, education, biography, travel, spirituality, New Age, Christian, business, investment, real estate, health, and humor

Cure for the ‘Bargain’ Edit

Qualified freelance book editors charge professional rates. You won’t find us on the “bargain” sites, with their questionable reputations. (See Choosing an Editor.) Some of my clients were burned by a so-called editor they met on a discount site, only to find they had to engage a genuine editor to re-do the work. To avoid disappointing results, make sure the editor you select has the credentials to do the type of editing you require.

Please visit my About page for information on my credentials. I am a contributing editor to Writer’s Digest, and my work has been endorsed by Jane Friedman, former publisher of Writer’s Digest. I guest-post on her blog, also on the excellent StoryFix website, and on the thought-provoking Writer Unboxed blog, named by Writer’s Digest in 2016 as the number-one website for writers.

Literary Services

While I specialize in developmental editing (or content editing), I offer the full range of professional manuscript-editing services in both fiction and nonfiction. Scroll down to see the types of editing available, along with a detailed description of the differences between them.

I also offer help with query letters, book proposals, and marketing materials for the authors I work with. I’m there for you at every stage of the process whenever you feel you need me, from brainstorming and structuring clear through to the finish line. While I won’t directly connect you with agents and publishers, the materials I help you produce will be of a quality that wins their respect and attention. With my guidance, clients have found agents in markets where they were told it was impossible. They have won contests and literary awards, written bestsellers and international bestsellers.

For nonfiction authors, if you feel you’ve polished the manuscript to the best of your ability, I recommend a content edit followed by a copy edit. If you’re having trouble with a meandering, confusing manuscript that has spiraled out of control, or you want to structure your book in advance of beginning the writing, I recommend author coaching, which entails my careful review of your materials followed by detailed advice on “where to go from here.” Author coaching may include manuscript reviews, phone consultations, outline creation, and written feedback—whatever you need to get back on track.

For novelists, if you’ve only completed your first or second draft, I generally recommend a critique (sometimes called a “developmental edit”) followed by author revisions and a line edit. If you’re working on a later draft and have already had help from a qualified fiction editor—or if you’re a seasoned, published author—I will probably recommend skipping the critique and moving directly to the content edit (line edit). Due to the complexity of the novel form, it makes sense for a writer to bring the story up to the highest standard possible (through a critique followed by revisions) before submitting the manuscript for line editing. This allows for macroscopic problems with plot, characterization, exposition, dialog, point of view, and so forth to be ironed out in advance of the fine-tuning line edit.

Content Edits

A content edit (sometimes called a “substantive edit,” “line edit,” or, if nonfiction, a “developmental edit”) detects and corrects substantive problems in a manuscript. It is used for nonfiction writing to address issues with structure, organization, presentation, logic, clarity, consistency, repetition, tense, tone, voice, titles, subheadings, lists, references, and so on. In the case of fiction writing, a content edit generally takes place after the editor has critiqued the material and the author has made subsequent revisions. A content edit is a detailed, line-by-line edit that corrects minor issues (such as word choice, rambling, and redundancy) while identifying significant problems and recommending solutions via detailed margin note commentary. Price varies depending on the quality of the writing and the amount of repair or polishing needed.

Copy Edits

A copy edit can be ordered separate from a content edit, but only submit your manuscript for this level of editing when you’re sure all its substantive flaws have been identified and eliminated. It’s a rare book that needs only a copy edit. Copy editing corrects a manuscript’s most superficial flaws: those involving grammar, syntax, and punctuation. Price is determined by word count and the amount of correction required.

Critiques (for Fiction)

Manuscripts of novelists who have never have been published or professionally critiqued usually are not ready for a line-by-line edit. First they need detailed feedback on the story’s flaws so the author can make in-depth revisions. A well-crafted novel is a marvel of complexity, and getting it right is no small achievement. A critique (a developmental edit for fiction) provides the detailed, professional feedback new authors need and guides them on how to elevate their story to a publishable standard before submitting it for a line edit. The critique focuses on both “microscopic” and “macroscopic” issues (the “tree view” and the “forest view”), identifying problems and suggesting specific solutions for issues with plot, characterization, dialog, point of view, pacing, exposition, description, voice, and other substantive issues, as well as for mechanical issues (sentence structuring, recurring grammar mistakes, wordiness, and so forth).

In a critique, the author receives:

  • An annotated manuscript (margin notes with comments and suggestions relating to particular lines of text—all “microscopic” problems with the manuscript are exposed, with detailed solutions proposed and explained)
  • An in-depth written report (generally 20 to 25 single-spaced pages) focusing on the manuscript’s “macroscopic” issues and recommending detailed potential solutions
  • Following delivery of the annotated manuscript and written report, an optional half-hour phone consultation answering questions and responding to the author’s ideas for revision

Price of a critique is determined by the manuscript’s word count.


For authors who want only an assessment of their manuscript’s marketability and a brief explanation of its strengths and weaknesses, I offer the option of an evaluation. Evaluations entail a thorough read-through of the material and either a short written report or a phone conversation. I can do this for a chapter, for several consecutive chapters, or for a book. Unlike a critique, an evaluation does not include annotation (detailed margin-note feedback), nor does it list and explain all the manuscript’s particular problems and potential solutions. An evaluation is only a brief report discussing the manuscript’s general merits and general problem areas. Price is based primarily upon word count.

Author Coaching 

If you’re in the process of writing your book and feel you’re having difficulty, if you sense there are problems in the writing but can’t quite put your finger on what they are, it may be more helpful to get professional input now than to wait until your first or second draft is finished. Author coaching typically entails a review of your material followed by a phone consultation, email advice, and detailed margin-note feedback. You can also ask for periodic reviews of your work in progress. I’m available as needed to the writers I coach and schedule time for them when they request it. For first-time authors, it is often wiser and more cost-effective to seek help at the beginning or middle of a project than to wait until the end. If you think you may be in the market for this type of service, read this article that explains in depth when consulting is a better option than critiquing. Author coaching is billed per quarter-hour.

Sample Edits

Editors in need of business offer free sample edits. Editors in demand do not do this, because a thorough sample edit takes considerable time—time the editor needs to devote to editing the books on her wait list. I discourage even paid sample edits for this reason. However, if an author strongly feels the need for a “trial run,” I will do a sample edit of 1,200 words (about 8 double-spaced pages) for $300. This offer is intended for nonfiction authors (and established fiction authors, who usually can skip the critique phase of editing).

First-time novelists, on the other hand, typically need a critique followed by substantial revision before detailed line editing can be properly performed. Issues at the microscopic level cannot be fairly addressed if a story has problems on the macroscopic level—which most fiction first drafts do. To line edit a shakily constructed story is like putting on make-up before cleaning your face. If the novel needs substantial restructuring, the section you ask me to sample edit may need to be deleted in your revised draft, in which case you’re paying for work that will go down the drain. So the paid sample edit is not for first-time novelists.

No-Charge Phone Consultation

contact-jessiTo get a price quote for the service that interests you, please contact me by email. Not sure exactly what your manuscript needs? Feel free to request a short, no-charge, phone consult with me, if that would be helpful.

Tip for Prospective Clients

Besides meeting authors through the Contact page of this website, I also offer my services through an Internet freelancers’ site. If you contact me through it, I am obliged to work with you through that website. It charges a 20% commission which I must add to my normal fee. The least expensive way to work with me is to initiate contact through this website, not through the freelancers’ website.